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8.9. The clans and villages of Mall - Sainthwar community

The inquisitiveness of some historians about Mall-Sainthwars resulted in recording of total clans and their chief settlements in present time. In 1898, the first attempt was made by P.C. Mukherjee who linked the ancient Malla settlements to the present day Malla settlements. By the early 20th century, other historians too started linking the community and its settlements with the Kshatriyas of ancient Malla Mahajanpada. However the first big effort was made by Dr. Rajbali Pandey, who did the laborious job of listing each and every clan of community with their settlements. On the other side, the listing of the clans and settlements of Rajput sections of the community is due to the painstaking efforts of Mehtab Narayan Mall. However, these efforts faced some hurdles due to the errors in the early censuses which clubbed Rajput clans with ancient Malla-Sainthwars under ‘Sainthwar’ caste. The error resulted in opportunity for certain populations of the ancient Malla-Sainthwars for discarding their old tag of Vratya Kshatriya and claiming Rajput status. These false claims, therefore, resulted in overlapping of certain clans and their settlements in the research work of historians. An attempt has been made here, based on the research of Rajbali Pandey, Raghunath Chand Kaushik, M.N. Mall and Tripatkacharya Mahopadhyaya Bhikshu Buddhamitra, to reclassify the entire Sainthwar population based on the hypothesis that the entire Rajput section cannot be more than 12-13% of the entire community population. Within them too, the Gaharwars (also known as Raikar) and BisenMall cannot be more than 800-1,000 each while the population descending from Rajputs related to Mahabat Khan episode cannot be more than 85,000-90,000 by the year 2011.

8.9.1 The descendants of Suryavanshi Kshatriyas

These clans descend from the warrior Indo-Aryan tribes, like Malla, Maurya, Shakya, Lichchhavi and other associated Suryavanshi Kshatriyas, who were Buddhist and grouped together after the Buddha period to protect their religious and political interests.

1. Suryavanshi Malla: They carry the legacy of the ancient Mallas of Pava. The chief settlements are Arawen, Amodha, Amahiya, Bhudipakad, Devgaon, Bardiha, Jagdishpur, Kaudiya, Rawatpar, Rampur misra, Pokharbhinda and so on. Their largest population is found in Natthapur Pargana of Mau district where they are settled in nearly 20-22 villages. The villages are Gangebeer, Jajauli, Ufrauli, Parasurampur, Lakura, Bahrampur, Kandhala, Usari, Khirikotha, Panti, Sidha-ahilaspur, Guramha, Gopalpur, Kathghara-shankar, Ahirauli, Palia, Chapara, Nevada, Lalanpur, Nandaur, etc.; though in this list some BisenMall Rajput population can be also there. Due to the dominance of the Malla population from long period, the entire area is also known as Mallan. The estimated population of the Malla titled people in Gorakhpur, Deoria, Kushinagar, Mau and nearby regions is approximately 25,000 for the year 2011 with 14,000-15,000 population living alone in Mau. Historians, therefore, refer the region of Mau as one of the navmallikis, more specifically as one of the mallikis related to the Mallas of Pava as mentioned in the Buddhist and Jain texts. A large section of the Mall titled population falsely claims BisenMall Rajput lineage after M.N. Mall linked them with Bisen Raja Madhav Mall.

The other Suryavanshi clans, refer Table 8.9.1, mainly carry the legacy of the Mallas of Kusinara and other upper regions along with Maurya, Shakyas and some other Suryavanshi Kshatriya tribes. Most of these clans derive their name after chief village of their settlement.

Table 8.9.1: The population descending from the Suryavanshi Kshatriya tribes

Sr. No.

Clan name

Recognized after Village

Chief villages of settlements and lineage

2

Rajpaliha

Rajpalli

Kalyan Chapra, Belvania, Milki, Sonaura, Bisvambharpur etc. Mainly found in Padrauna town of Kushinagar district (the ancient Kusinara) with some population in Basti district. Scattered across 40 villages with population descending from the Malla tribe.

3

Khuthania

Kahla and Khuthan.  

Khuthan, Madaria, Dhanav, Khuthan tola, Sudama chak, Belwa, Chegwana, Bela, Nathua, Rampur, Vatsa sauli, Pipraicha, Muhamadpur etc. Scattered population in 230 villages across Basgaon, Hata, Aajamgarh, Champaran and Saran. One of the largest sections of Sainthwar population and descending from the Shakya and Maurya tribes.

4

Mahuliyar

Mahui in Basgaon

Tighara, Bhiti, Gopalpur, Turkvalia, Rampur, Sohrauna, Karmaha, Pakadiyar, Beldah, Mohripur, Machariganwa, Sohas, Mangalpur, Patkhauli, Mahuwa, Siswa, Belwa, Khudari, Patkhauli, Lohepar, Sudhiyani, Janakpur, Madraha etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Chamaparan and Deoria in some 100 villages. Descending from the Mauryas of Pipphalivana.

5

Bhiti

Bhiti in Basgaon

Bhiti Sanmey, Bhauti Jamin, Thawipar, Chakramchandra, Bharronh, Nakta, Jagpur, Budiyabari and Jakhtarbhinda. Scattered across 160 villages with population descending from the Shakya-Mauryas.

6

Barhajpariha

Barhajpar in Basgaon

Barhajpar, Baadhni, Rajgadh, Gobinapur, Dadi, Bela manjharia, Jagdishpur, Bhimpur, Pokharbhinda etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Saran and Deoria in 50 villages.

7

Bhediha

Bhedi in Basgaon and Khadesar in Barhalganj

Bhedi, Khadesar, Bhidara, Bhediyahari, Sawuni, Velwa, Pagra, Thakurdeva, Mudera, Manjhwa, Rampur, Chakiya, Semra etc with minor population in some other 30 villages.

8

Bhatparaha

Bhatpar in Basgaon

Kolhua, Ramvapur, Belghat, Kuia, Sohasa, Ramudih, Kharailla, Bhabnauli, Chapia and Belsadi with scattered population in 11 other villages.

9

Sahajavansh

--

Bangaonwa, Johia, Manjharia, Thakurapar, Rampur, Jagdishpur, Narayanpur, Sitalmajha, Ranipur, Jafrawa with minor population in some other 50 villages.

10

Danuriha (Dhundher or Dandhor)

Danuriha in Deoria

Dhavaipar, Karaj-Kailasnagar, Sudamachak, Vijayikaf, Pipra, Pakdilala, Madanpur, Sidhav, Kanpur, Bhatgaon, Mahraji, Pashrampur, Chivraha with minor population in some other 100 villages.

11

Pushkar

Pushakar

Bahuripar, Harihar, Bhaisa, Chanhar, Pachgaon, Gopalpur, Gaura, Chapia, Rampur, Navapar, Rajpur etc. Scattered across Hata, Basgaon and Maharajganj region.

12

Magra

Magra in Basti

Navipur, Mahraji, Uska, Mahadeva, Sohni, Sikta, Rasulpoor, Mager etc. Scattered across Maharajganj, Hata, Basti and Gorakhpur in some 42 villages.


8.9.2 The descendants of Nagvanshi Kshatriyas

The ancestry of these populations is mainly traced to the Koliyas of Ramagrama who were Nagvanshi Kshatriyas. They, along with some other snake worshipping tribes, grouped with the Mallas of Kusinara due to their common religious interest after Buddha period, refer Table 8.9.2.

Table 8.9.2: The population descending from Nagvanshi Kshatriya tribes

Sr. No.

Clan name

Recognized after Village

Chief villages of settlements

13

Belha

Bela in Basgaon

Bela, Bhudipakad, Manjharia, Khairtawan, Patna, Belwa etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basti and Saran in some 120 villages.

14

Asaujiha

Asauji in Basgaon

Asauji, Barla, Bhiswa, Madhwapur etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basti and Saran in some 30 villages.

15

Barvaliha

Barval in Basgaon

Mahuapar, Gopala, Khairatwa etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basti and Saran in some 72 villages.

16

Karkotak

title itself means snake or Naga

Pachradi, Pipra, Belaval, Sahajauli etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basti and Deoria in some 12 villages.

17

Kaudia

--

Malahanpar, Dandi, Bhagel, Muhammadpur, Pashrampur, Piprahi, Mahraji no. 1, Bela etc. Scattered across Hata and Basgaon in some 138 villages.

18

Madriha

Madriha in Basgaon

Mahua Tola 1, Gaura, Bela, Basantpur, Kaithvalia etc with scattered population in some other 28 villages.

19

Naraijparaha

--

Domhar, Janakpur, Bhabhnauli etc. Scattered across Farenda, Maharajganj and Basti in some 14 villages.

20

Nevsaha

Newas

Newas, Tikari, Bhujauli, Chakia and Senuar. Scattered across Maharajganj, Basgaon and Gorakhpur in some 40 villages.

21

Parukhia

Pachrukhia on the banks of Rapti River

Varnai, Sakrapar, Vinayakpur, Uchchhagaon, Jigna etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basgaon and Deoria in some 20 villages.

22

Sondihia

--

Nathua, Mahri, Pipraich etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur and Champaran in some 10 villages.

23

Rajvalia – Kodriha

--

Ranipar, Aadilabhar, Mahuwa, Navipur etc.

24

Sajania

--

Parsauni, Sidhaawe, Singhpur, Navapar and some 17 other villages in Hata.

25

Bancharaha

Banchara in Hata

Banchara, Madar, Jhanga, Lehni, Pemli etc. and scattered across some 15 other villages.

26

Natthania

--

Hardi, Gaunria, Ramwapur, Somali, Rampur, Janakpur etc. Scattered across Basti, Hata and Maharajganj in some 23 villages.

27

Beltharia

--

Iteaili, Dumraila, Kajipur etc. Scattered across Basgaon and Hata in some 20 villages.

28

Bais

--

Doharia, Tikaria, Siktaur and Navipur. Scattered across Gorakhpur and Shitalpur in Maharajganj in some 10 villages.


8.9.3 The descendants of Chandravanshi Kshatriyas

The group carry the legacy of Indo-Aryan Chandravanshi kshatriyas who grouped with the Mallas of Kusianara and Pava after the Buddha period, refer Table 8.9.3.

Table 8.9.3: The population descending from Chandravanshi Kshatriya tribes

Sr. No.

Clan name

Recognized after Village

Chief villages of settlements

29

Usakha

Usaka in Salempur

Uska, Pidari, Jamai, Chakud, Dhuria tola, Chachar, Rajmandir, Patra, Navapar, Pipravari etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basti, Saran and Champaran in some 180 villages.

30

Raivansh

--

Bhedihari, Bhajanchapara, Navgaona, Rampur, Bhaishai, Sirsima, Sohni, Sukrauli, Lohepar, Mangalpur, Ghoghara, Jagdishpur etc. Scattered across Hata and Padrauna in some 150 villages.

31

Bhakkarvansh

Bhakaria

Bhakaria, Chargaon, Chakia, Pratap-pur, Balua, Phulwaria (Sardar Saheb), Bhusawul, Kurmautta, Mathia, Belwa, Sikta, Sona Pakad, Gonha, Bhadsar etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basgaon and Hata in some 125 villages.

32

Chautis-ha (Kaushik) vansh

Chautisa in Basgaon

Chautisa, Bhaluasa, Kaudia, Bisunpur, Nirpur, Nathua, Chapia, Ajitnagar, Mujhana, Gangoli, Sohni, Kanura etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basti and Saran in 125 villages.

33

Janwar

--

Rampurwa, Kamasin, Samera, Parsia, Piprapati, Khokhia and Mendar Bazar. Scattered across Hata and Basgaon in some 100 villages.

34

Darve or Davi

--

Arawen, Rampur, Sisia, Bhudadih, Sardaha, Belapar, Ramnagar, Basgaon, Bhaishei, Mothersun, Bakhara, Naranpur, Vijayikaif etc. Found in Hata, Basgaon and Champaran.

35

Motipurwa

Motipur in Basgaon

Motipur, Palia, Chapara Bhagat, Navapaur, Jagdishpur, Madraha, Pagra, Bhumihari Patti, Padri, Sahjana, Rampur etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basti, Saran and Hata in some 50 other villages.

36

Inrapari

Inrapar in Basgaon

Inrapar, Ahirauli, Rampur Babu, Phulwaria Babu, Raiganj etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Deoria and Basti in 63 villages.

37

Gahanha

--

Muhaddipur, Tarkulwa, Siswania and Barwa. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basti and Hata in some 28 villages.


8.9.4 The descendants of Rajput clans asociated with Mahabat Khan, Madhuban and Padrauna

The population belong to big landholders before abolition of the zamindari system in India.

38. Nagvanshi Das: The population traces their lineage from the Das clan of Jalandhar, Punjab. They were a strong force under the leadership of Mahabat Khan in Emperor Jahangir’s army. After Mahabat Khan’s rebellion in 1626, they settled in the forests of Gorakhpur. The leader of this group was Jagdish Narayan Das or Abhay Narayan Das who was a descendant of (Raja) Moti Das, Jalandhar. With the help of the Raja Nattha Mall, these Rajputs purchased 152 villages from Raja Majhauli and established Dughara Estate. The last zamindar of Dughara estate was Ganii Das. Till today, the Das clan and their villages are considered most influential and reputed within migrated Rajputs. The chief villages include Dughara, Pali, Amodha, Mal-auur, Nirpur, Kodari, Gaighat, Ghaghsara, Danopur, Gangapar, Darua etc. In later period, the population also migrated to some other villages in Basgaon, Gorakhpur and Maharajganj districts. The other Rajput clans are listed in table 8.9.4.

Table 8.9.4: The population descending from Rajput clans

Sr. No.

Clan name

Recognized after Village or clan

Chief villages of settlements

39

Sohar

Rathore Rajputs with lineage from the family of Rao Shobhit

Sarsopar, Bhatwalia, Rampur misri and Usna. Scattered across Hata and Basgaon in some 15 villages.

40

Rawat

--

Balua, Mathia, Piprasi, Belwania, Nauka Chapara, Judwani etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Deoria, Padrauna and Hata.

41

Kotaria Rathore

Suryavanshi Rajputs of Jalandhar

Bhaluwani, Rautpar, Sidhua, Bahorwa etc.

42

Chana or Choona

Suryavanshi Rajputs of Jalandhar

Bahorwa and Sidhua. This clan is mentioned in the history of Rawal Rajputs for killing Deoraj Rawal (853-908 AD).

43

Mohil Chauhan

Suryavanshi Rajputs of Agara

Mahui, Jamuni Barwa, Rampur, Tighara, Gorsaira etc.

44

Uder

Suryavanshi Rajputs from Kashmir

Danaur

45

Belharia

Suryavanshi Rajputs of Lahore

Pathsara, Uska, Sirsia and Mahdeia.

46

Harsomant

Rajputs from Lahore

Sirsia, Arawen.

47

Bhangara

Sisodia Rajputs of Agara

Sidhua Wanger.

48

Sundila

Nagvanshi Rajputs from Baroda

Scattered across Gorakhpur, Deoria and Champaran.

49

Belsadia

Nagvanshi Rajputs

Sonaura, Bhauwapar and Jagdispur.

50

Wudwaria

Chandravanshi Rajputs

Sonaura, Wadware.

51

Mewati

Chandravanshi Rajputs from Punjab

Motipurha.

52

Thakurai [18]

Suryavanshi

Phadsaar, Dhobauli, Sakhsi, Hardi, Basdila, boredih, Chakiya, Pokharbhinda, Bhainsehi etc. Scattered across Hata and Basgaon in 100 villages.

53

Mahat or Mahton [19]

Nagvanshi Rajputs of Jalandhar Doab

Nathua, Naikachapra, Pokharbhinda etc. Scattered across Gorakhpur, Basti, Saran and Champaran.

54

Khagi [20]

Nagvanshi Rajputs

Barparwa, Uska, Bhudipakad, Devgaon, Telgaona, Mudera etc. Scattered across Hata, Deoria, Basgaon, Gorakhpur, Champaran and Ajamgarh in 150 villages.

55

BisenMalla

Suryavanshi from Madhuban in Mau

Natthapur, Lakhnaur and few other villages. Due to the presence of the Malla population of ancient Pava in large number and their claim of Bisen lineage, it is difficult to segregate the villages belonging to only Bisen Rajputs descending from Madhav Malla.

56

Gaharwar

Suryavanshi from Kantit Raj

The main settlement of this clan is Padrauna Raj along with villages like Sekhwania, Murisan Lakshmipur, Murisan Semra etc.


Concluding this, it can be said that the ancient warrior and priestly populations living in the region of Kosala-Malla and Magadha Mahajanpada got divided and evolved as distinct communities due to various socio-political developments happened after 6th century BC. The Maurya titled population of Uttar Pradesh carries the legacy of Mauryas of Pipphalivana who converted to Buddhism after King Ashoka Maurya and is different than other sub-communities classified under Maurao / Koiri caste. Similarly the majority population of Malla-Sainthwar community carries the legacy of Buddhist republic Kshatriyas (Vratya Kshatriyas) of Malla Mahajanpada and other neighboring regions while the minority populations belong to Rajput clans. Similar to both communities, the Bhumihars or Babhans carry the legacy of Buddhist Brahmins (Vratya Brahmins) of Magadha.

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References:
[18] Singh, N. K. & Khan, A. M. (2001). Encyclopedia of world Muslims: Tribes, Castes and Communities, Vol 1, p. 1442. Delhi: Global Vision.
[19] Proceedings – Punjab History Conference (1971). Issues 7-8. p. 282.  Punjab University.
[20] Singh, K. S. (1996). Communities, Segments, Synonyms, Surnames and Titles, p. 541. India: Anthropological Survey of India.

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